Montecito, MN – 400,000 gallons of radioactive water leak, (last year)
Nuclear Power Plant In Minnesota Leaks 400,000 Gallons Of Radioactive Water – MINNESOTA, USA – 400,000 gallons of radioactive water leaked from a nuclear power plant at the Xcel Energy plant in Monticello, Minnesota last fall, but was not disclosed to the public because the plant said that it posed no health or safety risk to the public. See Full Article
In a statement released on Friday, Xcel said that the leak “is contained and poses no risk to local community or environment, as confirmed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines”.
This kind of stuff is horrible, and happens a lot more often than you may think. These devils must stop.
Deuteronomy 34: 4 And the LORD said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.
ST.. PAUL, Minn. (AP) — Minnesota regulators said Thursday they’re monitoring the cleanup of a leak of 400,000 gallons of radioactive water from Xcel Energy’s Monticello nuclear power plant, and the company said there’s no danger to the public.
“Xcel Energy took swift action to contain the leak to the plant site, which poses no health and safety risk to the local community or the environment,” the Minneapolis-based utility said in a statement.
While Xcel reported the leak of water containing tritium to state and federal authorities in late November, the spill had not been made public before Thursday. State officials said they waited to get more information before going public with it.
“We knew there was a presence of tritium in one monitoring well, however Xcel had not yet identified the source of the leak and its location,” Minnesota Pollution Control Agency spokesman Michael Rafferty said.
“Now that we have all the information about where the leak occurred, how much was released into groundwater, and that contaminated groundwater had moved beyond the original location, we are sharing this information,” he said, adding the water remains contained on Xcel’s property and poses no immediate public health risk.
The Monticello plant is about 35 miles (55 kilometers) northwest of Minneapolis, upstream from the city on the Mississippi River.
About 25% of the tritium has been recovered, if they're not lying about that. Which, they most likely are.
The Midwest (East North central and West North central divisions) led the Nation with 57% of the 121 Mt of industrial sand and gravel produced in the United states, followed by the south (south atlantic, East south central, and West south Central divisions) with 38%, the West (Pacific and Mountain divisions) with 4%, and the Northeast (New England and Middle atlantic divisions) with 1% (table 2). The leading producing states were, in descending order, Wisconsin, Texas, illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, Oklahoma, 1Deceased. 66.2 [aDVaNcE RElEasE] U.s. GEOlOGical sURVEY MiNERals YEaRBOOK—2018 Mississippi, North carolina, iowa, and louisiana (table 3). Their combined production accounted for 86% of the national total
Why is this important?
Well, tritium is adsorbed into silica...
Many compatibility concerns can be raised for tritium/material interactions.
The mechanical integrity of the material
The escape rate of tritium into and through the material
Contamination of tritium by the material and vice versa
Gettering capabilities of a substance for tritium
Mechanical integrity is a function of how well the material dissipates the energy of colliding beta particles and how well it excludes tritium from its bulk. Cross-contamination occurs when materials contain hydrogen or carbon in their bulk or at their surface or when the materials absorb a significant amount of tritium.
Gettering capabilities are largely a function of alloy overpressure. The process of gettering is the removal of gases by sorption; either adsorption, absorption, or chemisorption. In absorption the atoms of the gas dissolve between the atoms of the alloy. In adsorption and chemisorption, the molecules of the gas adhere to the surface of the alloy. The difference between adsorption and chemisorption is the type and strength of bonds that hold the molecules to the surface.
Because of its radioactive, chemically-reducing, and diffusive properties, tritium gas interacts with almost all materials. Tritium gas permeates and degrades many useful polymeric materials (for example, organics such as pump oils, plastics, and 0-rings). This action causes a loss of mechanical properties within months or years.
Tritium gas diffuses through glass, especially at elevated temperatures. The beta rays activate the reduction of Si-O-Si bonds to Si-OT and Si-T bonds, and mechanical properties may be lost over a period of years.
Some metals, such as uranium, are directly hydrided by tritium gas. These metals form a chemical compound and their mechanical properties are altered within minutes or hours. However, some metals, such as stainless steels, are permeated by tritium, but do not lose their mechanical properties unless the tritium pressure is hundreds of atmospheres for several years.
Solubility in Metals
Hydrogen dissolves as atoms in metals. These atoms occupy octahedral and tetrahedral locations within the lattice. The hydrogen apparently exists within nonhydriding metal lattices as proton, deuteron, or triton, with the electron in a metal conduction band. Some metals are endothermic (chemical change due to absorption of heat) hydrogen absorbers and others are exothermic (chemical change that releases heat), and solubilities vary considerably (approximately 10 to 15 orders of magnitude) at room temperature.
The solubility of hydrogen in endothermic absorbers increases as the temperature increases. The reverse is true for exothermic absorbers and the solubility decreases as the temperature increases. For various hydride phases, plots of decomposition overpressure as a function of inverse temperature yield negative enthalpies or heats of formation.
Permeability () of gas (including H2 or T2 through materials is a measure of how much gas will migrate across a material wall of given thickness and area over a given time. It is a direct function of the ability to diffuse and solubility. Dimensionally,
The following materials are listed in order of increasing permeability: ceramics and graphite, silicas, nonhydriding metals, hydriding metals, and polymers. The permeability of many other hydrogen-bearing molecules through polymers has been studied. For such molecules, permeability can be well in excess of that for hydrogen through a polymer. This must be considered when handling tritiated water or organic solvents.
Two factors that influence the permeability of a metal are oxides on surface and surface area. Because the permeability of hydrogen through a metal oxide at a given temperature is usually orders of magnitude lower than it is through the metal, a thin surface oxide can markedly reduce the permeability of hydrogen through the material.
posted in, ~ the gospel of peace, girded loins, the shield of faith, wearing the breastplate of righteousness, with the sword of spirit and the helmet of salvation in honest loving kindness.